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分等級多孔金屬氧化物復合材料的制備及其吸附性能研究
論文作者:童鞋論文網  論文來源:qaly-analyser.com  發布時間:2019/10/29 7:59:08  

摘要:隨著人類社會的發展和工業化進程的加快,水污染越來越突出,受到人們的廣泛關注。在水介質中常見的污染物包括染料、有機物、重金屬、農藥和藥品等。近幾十年來,染料廣泛應用于紡織、皮革、印染、化妝品等行業。由于其毒性高、難降解、容易抑制水生植物光合作用等原因,給人類的健康和生態系統帶來了嚴重的威脅。為了人類社會和生態環境的可持續發展,必須開發一種行之有效的技術來解決廢水處理中的染料問題。現如今,染料廢水處理技術主要有生物法、物理法、化學法以及一些組合工藝等。隨著染料廢水的成分越來越復雜,排放的標準越來越高,處理難度也就越來越大。吸附法由于具有處理效率高,廉價和易于操作等優點被認為是優選的方法之一。因此,發展高效,環保的吸附劑材料去除水中染料污染物是一項非常有意義的工作。本文研究了分等級多孔金屬氧化物復合材料的制備及其對水中有機染料的吸附性能。主要工作內容及研究結論如下:

(1)通過簡單的水熱法制備了Ni2+/Fe3+摩爾比為3的鐵鎳雙氫氧化物(NiFe-LDH)。在400°C 煅燒后,鐵鎳雙氫氧化物轉變為鐵鎳雙氧化物(NiFe-LDO)。制備的樣品通過X-射線衍射儀、場發射掃描電子顯微鏡,X-射線分光光譜,氮氣吸附−脫附,傅里葉變換紅外光譜分析儀進行表征。煅燒以及未煅燒的NiFe-LDH被用作吸附劑從水溶液中去除剛果紅染料(CR)。NiFe-LDH 和NiFe-LDO 樣品的吸附平衡數據可以被Langmuir模型擬合,擬合出最大的理論吸附量分別為205 和 330 mg/g。二級動力學和分子內擴散模型很好的描述了動力學數據。潛在的吸附機理在研究后被定義為離子交換及結構重建。

(2)通過簡單的水熱法制備出了ZnO-AlOOH納米片組裝的花狀結構。制備的樣品通過各種表征手段進行表征。花狀ZnO-AlOOH復合材料以及純的ZnO和AlOOH作為吸附劑去除水溶液的剛果紅(CR)的染料。二級動力學很好描述樣品吸附染料的動力學。ZnO–AlOOH樣品的吸附平衡數據用Langmuir擬合的很好。ZnO–AlOOH樣品具有杰出的吸附能力(524 mg/g),這高于純的AlOOH 和 ZnO的吸附量。ZnO–AlOOH樣品優越的去除效果是由于其分等級多孔結構和高的比表面積。這項工作為制造高效去除廢水中陰離子染料的吸附劑提供了新的見解。

(3)采用簡單的水熱法及后續的煅燒工藝成功地制備了分等級多孔ZnO/NiO復合金屬氧化物微球。制備的樣品通過各種表征手段進行表征。同時,研究了其從水溶液中去除剛果紅(CR)的能力。合成的分等級多孔ZnO/NiO復合材料對剛果紅染料表現出優越的吸附性能(518 mg/g),其明顯高于純的NiO (397 mg/g) 和ZnO (304 mg/g)樣品。ZnO/NiO復合材料優越的吸附性能主要是由于它獨特的分等級多孔結構及較高的比表面積(130 m2/g),這能夠為CR分子提供大量的活性位點。吸附動力學和等溫線數據很好的符合二級動力學和Langmuir等溫模型。這些結果表明,所制備的分等級多孔ZnO/NiO復合金屬氧化物微球可以被視為一個高效的吸附劑,以除去從廢水中的有機染料。

With the development of human life andindustrial activities, water pollution has become a global environmental issueand received wide attention. Among the common contaminants in the aqueous mediainclude dyes, organic matters, heavy metals, pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Inthe recent decades, dyes are widely used in textile, leather, dyeing, cosmeticsand food industries. These dyes have brought serious threats to human healthand environmental ecosystems due to its high toxicity, hard to degrade and mayaffect photosynthesis in aquatic environments by inhibiting light penetration.For the sustainable development of human society and ecological environment, itis necessary to develop an effective technology to remove dyes from wastewater.At present, the dye wastewater treatment methods mainly consist of biologicalmethod, physical method, chemical method and some combination technology and soon.Along with the composition of dye wastewater isbecoming more and more complex and the improved requirements of environmentalprotection, processing difficulty is also growing. Adsorption is considered tobe one of the best methods because of its advantages such as high efficiency,low cost and easy operation. Therefore, it is a very meaningful work to developefficient and environmentally friendly adsorbent to remove dye pollutants fromwater. In this paper, the preparation of hierarchical porous metal oxidecomposites and their adsorption properties for organic dyes in water werestudied. The main contents and conclusions are as follows:

(1) Hierarchically porousnickel–iron-layered double hydroxide (NiFe-LDH) with a Ni2+/Fe3+ molar ratio of3 was successfully synthesised through a simple hydrothermal route. Aftercalcination at 400 °C, NiFe-LDH transformed into nickel–iron-layered doubleoxides (NiFe-LDO). The as-prepared samples were characterised through X-raypowder diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, energydispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-rayphotoelectron spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption. The calcined and uncalcinedNiFe-LDH was used as adsorbents to remove Congo red (CR) dye in an aqueoussolution. The equilibrium adsorption data of NiFe-LDH and NiFe-LDO samples werewell fitted to Langmuir model and were characterised by excellent adsorptioncapacities of 205 and 330 mg/g, respectively. Pseudo-second-order kinetic andintra-particle diffusion models indicated that CR was well adsorbed on theadsorbent. The underlying adsorption mechanism was investigated and observed asanion exchange and reconstruction.

(2) ZnO–AlOOH nanoflakes assembled inflower-like structures were produced through a simple hydrothermal route. Thesynthesized composites were characterised by X-ray powder diffraction,field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-rayspectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption−desorption, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-rayphotoelectron spectroscopy analyses. The flower-like ZnO–AlOOH composites wereused as adsorbents to remove Congo Red (CR) dye from aqueous solution andcompared with pure AlOOH and ZnO adsorbents. The adsorption kinetics of the dyeon the synthesised samples was described by a pseudo-second-order model. The equilibriumadsorption data of CR on the ZnO–AlOOH samples fitted well with the Langmuirmodel. The ZnO–AlOOH samples possessed excellent adsorption capacity (524mg/g), which was higher than those of pure AlOOH and ZnO samples. The superiorCR removal efficiency of the ZnO-AlOOH samples could be attributed to theirhierarchical porous structures and high specific surface areas, which areconducive to the diffusion and adsorption of the CR molecules. This workprovides new insights into the fabrication of efficient adsorbents for anionicdye removal from wastewater.

(3) ZnO–AlOOH nanoflakes assembled inflower-like structures were produced through a simple

關鍵詞:金屬氧化物;分等級多孔;剛果紅;吸附;工業廢水;

metal oxide; Hierarchical porous; Congored; adsorption; industrial effluent

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